papaya mealy bug

All four species of parasitoids have been observed attacking second and third instars of P. marginatus. Acknowledgement: The authors thank Dr. Sunil Joshi, Principal Scientist, ICAR-NBAIR, Bangalore, Karnataka for identification of the pest. Islands. By January 2002, it had been collected 80 times on 18 different plant species in 30 cities throughout Alachua, Brevard, Broward, Collier, Dade, Hillsborough, Manatee, Martin, Monroe, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, and Volusia counties. Papaya mealy bug is polyphagous pest. It has never gained status as a serious pest there, probably due to the presence of an endemic natural enemy complex. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. The eggs hatch ten days later and the crawlers, which resemble miniature versions of the adult female, disperse. It was first described by Williams and Granara de Willink in 1992 from specimens collected on cassava. The papaya mealybug was discovered in Manatee and Palm Beach counties in Florida in 1998 and subsequently spread rapidly to several other Florida counties. Papaya mealybug has only been recorded feeding on areas of the host plant that are above ground, namely the leaves and fruit. “It appears as cotton like masses on the plant and it … The first specimens were collected in Mexico in 1955. Mealybug infestations appear on plants as tiny, soft-bodied insects surrounded by a fuzzy, white mess around the stems and leaf nodes. Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) 3 Miller and Miller (2002) give a complete description of all instars of both sexes of the papaya mealybug, as well as a complete description of characters used to distinguish the papaya mealybug from other closely related species. Adult male papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. Papaya mealy bug is an exotic pest recently invading India. The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, is a small hemipteran that attacks several genera of host plants, including economically important tropical fruits and ornamentals. Adult females are approximately 2.2 mm long (1/16 inch) and 1.4 mm wide. Four genera of encyrtid endoparasitoid wasps specific to mealybugs were collected in Mexico by USDA and ARS researchers and Mexican cooperators as potential biological control agents: Acerophagus papayae (Noyes and Schauff), Anagyrus loecki (Noyes and Menezes), Anagyrus californicus Compere, and Pseudaphycus sp. Nasty nasty nasty. Watson GW, Chandler LR. Commonwealth Science Council and CAB International, London. There are a number of short waxy filaments projecting around the margin. Damages on papaya plant are huge and can lead to the death of the plant in case of explosive population. Kauffman WC, Meyerdirk DE, Warkentin R. Biological control of papaya mealybug in the Caribbean Safeguarding the U.S. Figure 4. And all the branches I pruned? Adult males are approximately 1.0 mm long, with an elongate oval body that is widest at the thorax (0.3 mm). Paracoccus marginatus, commonly known as the papaya mealybug, is a small sap-sucking insect in the mealybug family, Pseudococcidae. In 1999, the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) initiated a classical biological control program for the papaya mealybug. Papaya mealybug infestations are typically observed as clusters of cotton-like masses on the above-ground portion of plants. 1992. Surveillance for papaya mealy bug had condocted by Directorate of Horticulture Crop Protection, 2 April – 24 August 2008. However, the preferred host plants are papaya… New Pest Advisory Group. [6], The papaya mealybug feeds on over 55 plants in more than 25 genera. It doesn't restrict itself to papaya, and it's a "polyphagous sucking insect pest and has been recorded on more than sixty host plants in India." Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Two characteristics that are important in distinguishing P. marginatus adult females from all other species of Paracoccus are: the presence of oral-rim tubular ducts dorsally restricted to marginal areas of the body, and the absence of pores on the hind tibiae. Various staged in the life cycle of the pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). McKenzie H. 1967. The pest sucks the … A. Heu, Mach T. Fukada, and Patrick Conant Introduction. Figure 1. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Specimens also have been intercepted in Texas and California, and it is expected that papaya mealybug could rapidly establish throughout Florida and through the Gulf states to California. 1999. 1999. Females usually lay 100 to 600 eggs in an ovisac, although some species of mealybugs give birth to live young. At the same time it injects a toxic substance into the plant which results in chlorosis, distortion, stunting, early leaf and fruit fall, the production of honeydew, sooty mould and possibly the death of the plant.[2]. Economically important host plants include papaya, avocado, citrus, mango, cherry and pomegranate, as well as hibiscus, cotton, tomato, eggplant, peppers, beans, peas and sweet potato. Thus, chemical controls are only partially effective and require multiple applications. Papaya Mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Ronald. Adult female papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. The outcome of releases of the four parasitoids in Florida is yet to be determined as of March 2003. temperature. Control of the papaya mealybug. Kauffman WC, Meyerdirk DE, Miller D, Schauff M, Hernandez HG, Villanueva Jimenez JA. Photograph by Dale Meyerdirk, National Biological Control Institute. It potentially poses a multi-million dollar threat to numerous agricultural products in Florida, as well as other states, if not controlled. Control of the papaya mealybug. Miller, D. R. and G. L. Miller. "Toxicity of some intsecticides to control mango mealybug, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paracoccus_marginatus&oldid=939560460, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 February 2020, at 06:21. The ovisac is developed ventrally on the adult female. Heavy infestations are capable of rendering fruit inedible due to the buildup of thick white wax. The result is chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early leaf and fruit drop, a heavy buildup of honeydew, and death. 2000. Adult males have ten-segmented antennae, a distinct aedeagus, lateral pore clusters, a heavily sclerotized thorax and head, and well-developed wings. p. 16-17. 5a–c). Papaya Mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus) • Adult female is yellowish segmented, flattened oval, about two millimetres long covered with mealy wax. 554 pp. It was recently noted in Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Chemical control. Williams, D. J. and M. C. Granara de Willink. Parasitoids of the papaya mealybug (. Surveillance for papaya mealy bug. As this happens the population of mealy bug is restrained to their minimum levels in favor of the crops , . Biological c… • a number of short waxy filaments projecting around the margin. The ovisac is well developed and visible underneath the posterior part of the body. Sometimes the wax looks like cotton wool and oozes drops of fluid. In doing so, it injects a toxic substance into the leaves. Active ingredients in registered pesticide formulations include acephate, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, malathion, and white mineral oils. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of plants by inserting its stylets into the epidermis of the leaf, as well as into the fruit and stem. Outside of its natural habitat, Papaya mealybug is a polyphagous pest, with hosts recorded from 25 plant families. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Photograph by Dale Meyerdirk, National Biological Control Institute. When the papaya mealybug invaded the Caribbean region, it became a pest there; since 1994 it has been recorded in the following 14 Caribbean countries: St. Martin, Guadeloupe, St. Barthelemy, Antigua, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, and the U.S. Virgin • The Papaya mealy bug occurs in southern and south eastern Asia, Central America, Mexico and Florida as well as some African countries. [5] Biological control was identified as a key component in a management strategy for the papaya mealybug, and a classical biological control program was initiated as a joint effort between the US Department of Agriculture, Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture, and Ministry of Agriculture in the Dominican Republic in 1999. Plant and slowly kills your plants with males being 1 mm in size and the Dominican (! Republic of Palau Agriculture, Animal and plant Health Inspection Service size and the female 2 mm M! 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